> Sprayed concrete and low carbon: how low can we go?
Article from The Tunnelling Journal

As the demand for decarbonization from investors and governments grows, tunnel linings - and their cement content - are coming under scrutiny. What does this mean for sprayed concrete, asks Kristina Smith.

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> Steel Fiber Reinforced Segments Improve Carbon Footprint

By Jean-luc Bischoff, Benoit De Rivaz, Dieter Hansel, & Roland Herr

Although the use of steel fibres for shotcrete or concrete segments can significantly improve the CO2 footprint, their use is still not widespread in Europe.
The example of construction lot 16-1 of the Grand Paris Express (GPE) rapid transit network in France shows how the interaction of innovatively thinking construction partners not only creates cost savings, but also benefits the environment.

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> Moving to low carbon lining
By Benoit de Rivaz

In this paper, Benoit de Rivaz explains how the inclusion of steel fibers into precast tunnel segments
can lead to significant reductions in the CO2 emissions of tunnel linings

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> Doing more and doing better with fiber reinforced Shotcrete
Design and testing comparison

by Antoine Gagnon and Marc Jolin

This paper discusses the design and testing methods used in the application of fiber reinforced shotcrete (FRS). Discover what tools and materials allow designers to unlock the full potential of this extremely versatile and useful material. 

“Courtesy of the American Concrete Institute,”

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> A Service Limit State Design Approach for SFRC Tunnel Linings
High-pressure grouting research for tunneling

By Potiris Psomas

In this paper, Potiris Psomas, Director of Tunnel Structures at Cowie UK, looks at how to estimate mean crack-width for ‘strain-softening’ SFRCs which are usually adopted in tunnel- and shaft-lining applications.
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> New Generation FRC Segments
By Benoit De Rivaz 

In this paper, Benoit de Rivaz, Technical Manager at Bekaert, explains how the inclusion of steel fibers in precast concrete segments can bring environmental, economic and durability benefits.

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> Changing perceptions on Grand Paris' Line 16-1

In this release of the Tunneling Journal, Jean Luc Bischoff, EIFFAGE, and Bernard Bergé and Benoit de Rivaz explain how the use of steel fiber reinforced concrete segments was succesfully achieved on this section of France's mega-project, the Grand Paris Express (Line 16-1).

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> Low carbon concrete for shaft and tunnel linings

Charles Allen of OTB Concrete explains that low-carbon concretes are a welcome development but should be carefully used as some cases could see longer setting times, slower strength development and even increased embodied carbon.

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